Thursday, March 27, 2008

The Origin of the Universe

Modern cosmology considers the Big Questions of how the Universe was created and how it will all end.
In 1658, and Irish bishop named James Ussher reconstructed a chronology of the Universe based on the information in the Bible (considered the standard method at the time). His calculations placed the date of creation on 23 October, 4004 BC.

Modern scientists like Charles Darwin suggested a very different possibility for the development of life on Earth. His theories suggested that the Universe must be far older than anyone had previously considered. Natural Selection and Plate Tectonics both involve very gradual changes which occurred over millions or billions of years.

Most scientists now believe that the Universe began with a Big Bang. Most people are somewhat familiar with this idea. All matter and energy was once compressed into an infinitely small dot called a singularity. Intense heat and pressure caused a massive explosion which cooled and expanded to form the Heaven and the Earth. 

Time and Space were created along with the Universe, so there was no "before" the Big Bang. Scientists think they know what happened after the Big Bang, except for the first millionth of a second. During this period, called Planck Time, fundamental forces and the laws of physics were still forming.

The temperature at the Big Bang was roughly ten trillion trillion times hotter than the core of our Sun.

The most important evidence suggesting the Big Bang was discovered by Edwin Hubble. Using modern telescopes, he noticed that other galaxies seemed to be moving away from Earth. This is true no matter what direction you look in: they're all moving away from us, suggesting that the Universe is expanding. Extrapolating backward over billions of years, he theorized that all matter and energy must have once been contained in a very tiny space.

Astronomers believe that the Universe came into being between 12 and 15 billion years ago. A small amount of tv static is actually created by radiation left over from the Big Bang, which has taken countless billions of years to reach Earth.
Perhaps a billion years after the instant of creation, gas clouds formed giving birth to the first stars. Five billion years ago our Sun was born and the Solar System began forming. Earth became a planet about four and a half billion years ago.

There are an awful lot of good books on astronomy and the origins of the Universe. Two of the best are The Short History of Nearly Everything, by Bill Bryson and Don't Know Much About the Universe, by Kenneth C. Davis. Both do an incredible job of explaining very complicated material in a way that's interesting and easy to follow.

1 comment:

JASDEEP SINDHU said...

ORIGIN OF UNIVERSE- A NEW PRINCIPLE
Propounded by Dr. Hari Om, Agronomist




According to this principle, which is called 'Principle of Cipher Zone', the universe was originated in a series of four steps, i.e., four sub-principles are involved in this process. These sub-principles explain the origin of universe, its dissolution, basis of its expansion and status of energy in a star.

The Principle of Cipher Zone propounds that the theory of 'Big Bang' is not responsible for the origin of universe, but this process advanced in a series of steps, which did not involve any vast explosion of the energy like Big Bang. It started as the process of formation of a star initiates. Today, the completion of this process takes lesser ?time' as it was taken for the formation of first star, because in the present universe, the material required for the formation of a star becomes readily available, but initially it was not so and this process proceeded very slowly. When the energy of this first star was burnt, it converted into a black hole; but before this conversion, the process of the formation of other stars and planets was initiated and they started revolving around this initially appeared central star. In this way along with the central black hole (converted from the first star) the surrounding stars also formed their own families and kept on revolving around the central black hole. Slowly and slowly, the first Milky Way came into existence. The black hole, which was initially formed, now occupied the central space of the first Milky Way thus formed and simultaneously this central black hole of the central Milky Way went on increasing its size by feeding the surrounding old stars. This way, other Milky Ways also came into existence around the central Milky Way and started revolving around it. All these later formed milky ways also had their own central black holes and found their base of stability from the initially formed central black hole and the central Milky Way like a string tied to the neck of the surrounding Milky Ways with the central one. When all the surrounding black holes merged into the initially formed gigantic black hole, the whole of the universe realized dissolution i.e. Maha Pralya.

Now after dissolution, there remained only one universal black hole in which the energy of the whole universe turned into waves of almost compatible character with a stable centre of least moving energy having very dense core at the centre. Slowly and slowly the fast moving energy present at the periphery of this black hole went sluggish and slowed down which got scattered with the passage of time. The movement of the energy at the periphery gets faster and faster upto when the outside material in the form of stars, planets, or Milky Ways remains available for feeding, but it starts slowing down once the whole material is immersed in the central universal black hole. In this way, the whole black hole scattered with the passage of time. After that, the process the creation again started. These two processes of creation and dissolution proceed simultaneously through the creation of new stars and galaxies at the outer periphery and simultaneous dissolution of stars and surrounding galaxies into the central black hole of the central galaxy.

The expansion of universe is also not due to Big Bang, but it is attributed to the size of the continuously increasing black hole at the centre of the Milky Ways. As the size of the central black hole increases, the expansion as well as the speed of the Milky Ways running away from the centre will go on increasing, but a time will come when the outer expansion will be ceased due to extraneous increase in the size of black hole or we can say that increasing density of the central black hole will not allow the further expansion of the galaxy. The incoming energy of the system will dominate over the outgoing energy. With this advancement in the increase of the black hole size, the whole universe will fall and rest in the centre. Every existence or system has a zone of neutral energy at its centre and in its surrounding where its energy ends and the periphery of another system starts. When these two neutral energy zones are merged into one, then the system or existence ceases to work and collapses or we can say that the differential strata of energy of that system are converted into more compatible and unified form of energy or we can say that it is the expansion of the central zone of neutral energy which compels that system to collapse. During the process of expansion, the central zone or black holes of different galaxies goes on increasing. This increase in the area and density of black holes in the middle of the galaxies allow the expansion of the galaxies. The ratio of increase in the area or volume of the black holes in relation to the expansion of outgoing and expanding energy can be assessed with the increase in the ratio of expansion of the nucleus of an atom and the overall expansion of that atom in the form of its mass and energy.

The working of the system depends on the presence of energy at different levels and the inter- and intra-facial tension in those energy fields. When these fields are merged together, the system collapses or dissolved. In this way, the different systems or existences either small or large are converted into energy waves and this way the process of dissolution proceeds until a sole, gigantic and universal zone of neutral energy or Cipher Zone is formed, which brings the final dissolution.

This present theory also refutes the finding that a star has the maximum temperature at its core. This theory propounds that a star has highly peaceful zone at its centre; it is not explosive. Every star or system has two types of energy; incoming and outgoing, working entirely at different level and in different direction. The larger is the system or existence, the greater it will have the zone of neutral energy at its centre i.e. a peaceful zone providing stable base to the whole system. The greater is the expansion of the zone of peace and stability at the centre, the more explosive or vibrating will be the surface energy either it is a star like Sun or vast ocean or galaxy. This is true only when the star or the system is composed of similar type of energy at its centre. If the system, like earth, has different type of energy particles at different levels, then the energy will be explosive at its core because of the admixture of different form of energy in the central zone. This is due to the interfacial stress among different types of energy resting at the same level.

The central zone is nothing but the zone of neutrality, the zone of satisfied energy either it is at the level of smallest particle existing as an atom or largest systems like sea, star or galaxy. The unsatisfied or vibrating or tension creating charge at the surface is the result of the degree of vastness of the internal satisfied power of the system; if measured at the surface of the sea, there is a possibility of the prediction of future rains and devastating thunderstorms or catastrophic Tsunami outbursts. This charge may have its impact on the El-NiƱo effect and difference of temperature in seawater. If it is measured inside the earth, there can be a possibility of the prediction of earthquakes.
Radhasoami

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